Friday, March 11, 2011

''The origins of sexual inequality''

               From the moment we are born we are given a ‘name’, beginning the process of the growth of the human’s ego. We are showered in baby gifts ‘pink’ for girls and ‘blue’ for boys, starting the first stages of separation between female and male. We are brought up to believe women are to express their emotions to show their feminine side, while males are to maintain control of their emotional side. This defined partition between genders, eliminates unity between females and males. The social aspects in life which one may have, is all decided upon ones sex. Words used to characterize women and men result in brain chemistry changes, causing one to act a certain way in response, environment, sounds, visions, feelings are all factors in the bonding processes between women and men. These developed attitudes between sexes draw a line in the middle of women and men and make boundaries apparent. A group of men would act differently if no women were to be present, then if women were included. This would also be distinct in a group of females and males were to be introduced. Media plays a huge role in gender, displaying how each sex should act and how they should respond in different circumstances. Superficial, artificial, awkward, insincere are just some of the descriptive words which can be seen impersonated in social realms. Marriage is a key portrayal of women’s place in society, with the aspect of marriage under the beliefs; it should be the father who gives away the daughter to the waiting to be groom down the end of the aisle. This may seem to be a lovely gesture of the father letting his once baby daughter go, but it represents a social medial in which women are seen as the weaker gender and in need of confirmation from their father, to accept they have made the righteous decision. You wouldn’t hear of the mother leading her once baby son down the aisle to the waiting to be wife, now would you?

               Females and males are sought upon as the two differentiated sexes, due to the different developments between males and females, in the particular zygote (fertilized egg). Development of females and males cultivate from zygotes into fetuses, continuing on until they reach adults. Sex differences can be applied by many specific genes, hormones, anatomy or social learning. Gender differences in the development of identity, are by both biological and social factors. Modification or mutilations are usually permitted by adults when the child is born, either to operate on the girl if an oversized clitoris is present or the male being circumcised. Depending on social acceptance in cultures the ‘third gender or more’ tend to be segregated in populations due to their physical differences or social category. Some cultures see the ‘third gender’ as addition to female or males, the ‘third gender’ representing neuter. The societal views the majority hold today define weather another gender would be accepted or disclosed. Biologically our species as ‘Homo-sapiens’ is only been interpreted with the two sexes female and male for simplicity values as to have other sexes would complicate societal adaptations. Hijras of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan all respectively accept the ‘third gender’, along with Fa’afafine of Polynesia and sworn virgins of the Balkans, all having a description to describe their gender differences. These examples are culturally accepted as biological differences, either males who take on a feminine gender or sexual role or visa-versa.

               A 2004 review in ‘Nature Reviews Neuroscience’ observed that "because it is easier to manipulate hormone levels than the expression of sex chromosome genes, the effects of hormones have been studied much more extensively, and are much better understood, than the direct actions in the brain of sex chromosome genes." It concluded that while "the differentiating effects of gonadal secretions seem to be dominant," the existing body of research "support the idea that sex differences in neural expression of X and Y genes significantly contribute to sex differences in brain functions and disease. Genes, hormones and the behaviour of adult individuals tend to perpetrate the formation of human brains before birth; genes coded for male and female brains are identified in the transcription of the PCDH11X/Y gene pair unique to Homo sapiens, defining sexes.